About Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan also called as Tipu Sahib or Fateh Ali Tipu and his by name is Tiger of Mysore. He was a ruler in the Kingdom of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was introduced a number of administrative innovations during his period of the ruling, including new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, his coinage, and a land revenue system which are initiate the growth of the Mysore silk industry. He had expanded the commissioned the military manual and their-cased Mysorean rockets and he is considered as a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery. He set up the rockets against the British forces and their collaborators during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Siege of Seringapatam and Pollilur.
Facts about Tipu
Tipu Sultan was born on 20th November 1750 at Devanahalli, Mysore. He was the eldest son for Hyder Ali and Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa. His full name was Badshah Nasibuddaulah Sultan Fateh Ali Bahadur Sahab Tipu. He is belonging to Islam Religion. Hyder was very particular in giving a prince’s education for Tipu and he was very early exposure to political and military affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given an independent charge in the important military and diplomatic missions. He was the right arm for his father in the wars from which Hyder became the most powerful ruler of southern India.
1st Anglo-Mysore War
In the 18th century, the British East India Company attempted to expand the control of southern India by playing the local kingdoms and the principalities off one another and French. In 1767, the British formed a combination with the Marathas and the Nizam, and together they attacked the Mysore. Hyder Ali has managed to make the separate peace with Marathas, and in June he sent his son Tipu Sultan on that time he was 17 years old to negotiate the Nizam. The young mediator arrived in the Nizam camp with the gifts including jewels, cash, five trained elephants and ten horses. In just one week, Tipu enchanted the ruler of the Nizam into his own side, and joining them in Mysorean team and fight against the British. Tipu Sultan led a cavalry attack on Madras (now Chennai) itself, but his father was defeated by the British at Tiruvannamalai and then he called his son back. Hyder Ali decided to continue the fight during the monsoon rains and together with the Tipu captured two British forts. Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan then went on to tear up the coast and capturing the forts and British-held cities. The Mysoreans were threatening to displace the British from their key east coast port of Madras when the British appealed for peace in March of 1769.
After this defeat, the British had signed a peace agreement in 1769 with Hyder Ali and this is called the Treaty of Madras.
Interwar with Marathas
In 1771, the Marathas attacked Mysore with his army become large as 30,000 men. Hyder Ali called the British to honor their duty under the Treaty of Madras, but the East India Company refused to send any troops to assist the Hyder. Tipu Sultan played a key role during the Mysore fought off the Marathas, but the Tipu’s father and the young commanders are never trusted the British again.
Later that issue, France and Britain came to draft over the 1776 rebellions in Britain’s North American colonies and France supported the rebels. In revenge, America draws off the French support and Britain had decided to push the French entirely out of India. In 1778 it began to capture the key French holdings in India such as Pondicherry and on the south-eastern coast. The following year, the British grabbed the French and occupied the port of Monheit is located on the Mysorean coast, and then the Hyder Ali declared the war.
Anglo-Mysore War -Second Phase
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784), began and then the Hyder Ali led an army of 90,000 for an attack in the Carnatic, which was allied with the Britain army. The British government decided to send the bulk of his army to against the Mysoreans, and this is called as second British force under the supervision of Colonel William Baillie they leave Guntur and meet up with the main forces. Hyder sent Tipu Sultan with 10,000 troops to intercept the force of Baillie.
In September of 1780, Tipu and his 10,000 armed forces surrounded Baillie’s and combined with Indian force and British East India Company and inflicted them the worst defeat the British. Most of the 4,000 Anglo-Indian soldiers surrendered and were taken to prison; 336 soldiers had been killed.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War settled down. On February 18, 1782, Tipu defeated the East India Company soldiers at Tanjore. Braithwaite was completely surprised after twenty-six hours of fighting; Indian sepoys surrendered the British peoples. Finally, the second war came to end.
The Second War went on until 1784, but Tipu maintained the upper hand throughout the time. Finally, on March 11, 1784, the British East India Company formally gave in with the signing the Treaty of Mangalore.
Under the terms of the treaty, Tipu Sultan agreed to release all of the British soldiers and Indian prisoners of war he had captured.
By the two victories over the British, Tipu realized that the East India Company remains a serious threat to his kingdom. He funded continuously for military advances, and for development of Mysore rockets – iron tubes that fire missiles up to two kilometers and that get to destroy the British forces and their allies. And Tipu is also called the “Tiger of Mysore,”
Third Anglo-Mysore War
Tipu Sultan had to face the British for the third time between 1789 and 1792. This time, Mysore would receive no aid from its usual allies of France, and the famed as one of the major British commanders during the American Revolution.
This war lasted for several years. At the end of the war, after the British encircle the Tipu’s capital city of Seringapatam, the Mysorean leader had to capitulate.
In the 1793 Treaty of Seringapatam, the British and their allies, the Maratha Empire, took half of the area of Mysore. The British also demanded that Tipu turn over two of his sons, ages seven and eleven, as hostages.
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War In 1798, a French generally named as Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt.
The British had sufficient time for recovering from the Third Anglo-Mysore War. They also had a new commander at that time, Earl of Mornington, Richard Wellesley, who was committed to the policy of “aggression and aggrandizement.” Although the British had taken the half of his country and a large sum of money, Tipu Sultan meanwhile had rebuilt the Mysore significantly and Mysore was once more a prosperous place. The East India Company knew that Mysore was the only thing standing between it and have the total domination of India.
Tipu Sultan was able to lay out and stage a surprise attack early in March that nearly destroyed one of the British contingents before the reinforcements showed up. Throughout the spring, the British were pressed closer and closer to the Mysorean capital. Tipu wrote to the British commander Wellesley, trying to arrange for peace, but Wellesley completely unaccepted the terms. His mission was to destroy Tipu Sultan, not to negotiate with him.
At the beginning of May 1799, the British and their allies surrounded the Seringapatam, the capital of Mysore. Tipu Sultan had just 30,000 defenders against the 50,000 attackers. On May 4, the British broke the city walls and entered into the city and killed the Tipu in his city. Finally, Seringapatam was defeated.
Death of Tipu Sultan
On 4th May 1799, he died in Srirangapatna. After the Sultan’s death, Mysore became another princely state under the administration of the British. His sons were sent into an exile, and a different family became victim rulers of Mysore under the British. In fact, Tipu Sultan’s family was reduced to poverty as deliberate policy and were restored to print state in 2009.
Tipu Sultan fought hard and long, although ultimately and unsuccessfully, to preserve his country for independence. Today, Tipu is remembered by many as a heroic freedom fighter in India and also in Pakistan.